Let's imagine an interview to a famous musician who is touring all around the world:
-Hi what have you done in the last month?
-Well I've been to China three times, and it was awesome!
-Really? Have you ever been to India?
-No not yet but I have already visited other Asian countries like Pakistan.
-THat's amazing, what was the last thing you've done?
-Well let me think: I've j
ust come from a concert for a charity in England. There I could feel the real problems of people.
-Thanks a lot for your words.
This text talks about a person´s experiences and the recent events in his life. The words in bold refer to present perfect tense which is used for that.
-have+ past participle
All perfect tenses are formed by the auxiliary verb HAVE in the tense which is referred to in the name (i.e. have in the present if it is present perfect). The main verb has to be in the participle which is the -ed form for regular verbs and the third column (past participle) for irregular verbs.
Thus the form is really easy. and the fuctions will be discussed in a few lines but you can guess by the text above.
-Recent actions: I've just painted the room . you can see it is still wet. .
Here, "just"" is used to express to express a very recent action. It can be translated by : acabo de pintar la habitación. puedes ver que todavía está húmeda. JUST is used between the auxiliary and the main verb.
-Life experiences: Have you ever been to China? Have you ever eaten frog´s legs? I've never learnt to cook
Here "ever" means Alguna vez en la vida. "Never" can also be used, as it means nunca
-Actions happening in the past we don't know excactly when. I've lived in Pozoblanco for 5 years
OTHER EXPRESSIONS APPEARING IN THE DIALOGUE:
ALREADY:It means YA. I've already eaten frog´s legs before. (ya he comido ancas de rana)
YET: It is used in negative sentences. It means "todavía o todavía no" and it is placed at the end of the sentence. I haven't been to China yet.
FOR: For + period of time. I've lived in Jaén for 20 years (durante 20 años).
SINCE: Since+point in time. I've spoken English sin 1998 (desde 1998)
Now, let´s practice. There, you can also find explanations:
This is about the difference between past simple and present perfect:
I hope it has been profitable for you!!!!